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Essential Shorcut Keys under Linux


Newbie Linux users usually finds hard to understand Linux evironment, some common tasks that they do easily on Windows using a few shortcut keys, they don't know how to do them on Linux. There are a few shotcut keys easy to remember that gives Linux great functionality.

Virtual Consoles:

Starting Linux on text mode leads you to the first (but not the only one) virtual console (Ctrl+Alt+F1) but pressing (Ctrl+Alt+F2) gives you the second virtual console as does: F3, F4...F6, the last one is F7 reserved for X11 (graphic mode).
Tip: Try pressing (Ctrl+Alt+F1) (Ctrl+Alt+F2) (Ctrl+Alt+F7), etc.

Auto Completion:

A nice Linux feature is auto completion by pressing TAB key. It works this way:
When you are at bash (Linux prompt) type:
cd /(press TAB here) and a list of directories will be displayed. Now press m(and TAB again) and you will see that m being converted to mount
Warning because TAB is an addictive key and if you also use "other operanting systems" that don't have this feature you'll curse it.

Console Scroll:

Text mode only have 24 lines (if you don't use frame buffer) a simple ls -la command may have more 24 lines, to see last scroll page you could use: (SHIFT+PgUp) and (SHIFT+PgDown)

Bash History:

Pressing Up Arrow brings you last typed command, pressing it more times shows all the typed commands.
Tip: Try this: !mou
It will run the last command on your history that begins with mou (maybe mount /mnt/cdrom). It's like Ms-DOS doskey when pressing F8.
All your last commands are stored on your home directory on a file named: .bash_history
cat ~/.bash_history
How many commands are stored there? It's controlled by HISTSIZE variable, to see it: export
To change it: export HISTSIZE=5000  to store 5000 commands.

Killing Programs:

Kill (remove from memory) a running program: (Ctrl+c)
Send to background a running program: (Ctrl+z)
Other similar key shortcut is: (Ctrl+d) that sends end of file signal to the current process
(Ctrl+Alt+del) reboots or halts (it's configured on /etc/inittab) the computer.

ntilde ~ on non-english keyboards:

On Ms-DOS ntilde is typed by pressing (Ctrl+Alt+126) this doesn't work on Linux, it's easier, just press: (AltGr+4) or (AltGr+)
Note the number 4 is on the upper line on your keyboard under the function keys (not on the keypad)

X11  Linux Graphic Mode


Copy and Paste Howto:

To copy and paste on (Linux graphical mode) X11, follow this steps:

1. Select desired text using the mouse (put the mouse at the begining press and drag until the end, and release the mouse button).
2. Move the mouse to destination.
3. Press without moving the mouse, the rigth and left buttons at the same time and the text will be pasted there.
Note: if your mouse have 3 buttons, you can use the third button instead of Right+Left.

Resolution Change on X11:

To change graphical resolution press (Ctrl+Alt++) or (Ctrl+Alt+-) to increase or decrease it.
To switch back to the last resolution mode press: (Ctrl+Alt+Backspace)
Note: Keep in mind that you can tell the computer the resolutions that you want to use. For example it's done on RedHat 7.1 by typing setup and selecting X Configuration.




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